We examined drinking behavior of parents, siblings, and friends of twins as predictors of adolescent and young adult problem drinking over a period of 2 and a period of 7 years. http://www.woolricharcticparka.nu Data of 12 to 30-year-old twins and their family members from the Netherlands Twin Register were analyzed. Problem drinking in twins was assessed in 1995 and 2000 and was defined based on the CAGE and amount of drinking. Data on alcohol use of parents, siblings and friends were collected in 1993. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the short-term (1993–1995; n = 2,994) and the long-term longitudinal predictors (1993–2000; n = 1,796) of problem drinking. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woolrich Age, sex and own alcohol use in 1993 explained 25% of the variance in adolescent and young adult problem drinking. woolricharcticparka Moreover, adolescents… and young adults with fathers who drank frequently and with a large numbers of drinking friends, were at the highest risk for problem drinking 2 years later. Over a period of 7 years the number of drinking friends was no longer a risk factor, but few times a week or daily alcohol use of fathers remained a risk factor for later problem drinking. woolrich slippers Drinking behavior of mother and siblings did not substantially predict problem drinking. Sex and age did not moderate these effects.
Owing to the complexity of civil structures, structural behavior predicted by finite element models (built according to design drawings) is usually different from behavior of an actual structure in the field. To improve the prediction accuracy, finite element (FE) model updating can be performed based on sensor measurement from the actual structure. Numerous FE model-updating algorithms have been developed in the past few decades. However, most existing algorithms suffer computational challenges when applied to large structures. http://www.woolricharcticparka.nu The challenges are usually because most existing algorithms attempt to solve non-convex optimization problems. As a result, the optimization process encounters convergence difficulty and cannot guarantee global optimum. To address the issue, this paper proposes an… iterative convex optimization algorithm for FE model updating. woolricharcticparka The convex attribute of the optimization problem makes the solution process tractable and efficient. To validate the proposed algorithm, numerical simulation is conducted with a plane truss structure.woolrich boots The proposed approach successfully updates the simulation model and shows certain advantage over a conventional FE model updating algorithm.
A mathematical model proposed by Bark and Alavyoon for modelling laminar natural convection in electrochemical cells, with binary electrolytes, is extended to simulation of two-dimensional turbulent flows. The turbulence was modelled by a standard k–π model. The constants used in the model are the same as those used by Henkes and Hoogendoorn. Steady state calculations were carried out in a square, differentially heated enclosure for Gr=7×1010 and Pr=0.71. The turbulence model used could not predict the transition effect on the Nusselt number along the hot wall. Transient calculations performed in an enclosure with an aspect ratio of 35, for Gr=6.4×1011 and Sc=2763, revealed large scale fluctuations in the boundary layers near the vertical walls. http://www.woolricharcticparka.nu The model was able to predict qualitatively… the velocity field for transitional flow for air induced by buoyancy at Grh=8100 and Grh=22 500. woolrich blankets The correlation between the Sherwood and Rayleigh numbers was studied by modelling the mass transfer at the electrodes using a Butler–Volmer law. woolricharcticparka The computed Sherwood number was found to be approximately proportional to the Rayleigh number to the power of 0.2 in the range of Rah between 5×108 and 1010, and with an order of magnitude of 105.